What are semiconductor equipment? List of semiconductor industry chain and core components

Release time:

2023-12-01 15:22

Semiconductors refer to materials whose electrical conductivity at room temperature is between that of conductors and insulators. A semiconductor is a material whose conductivity can be controlled, ranging from an insulator to a conductor. From the perspective of science, technology and economic development, semiconductors affect people's daily work and life. It was not until the 1930s that this material was recognized by the academic community. The editor below will introduce to you "What are the semiconductor equipment, an overview of the semiconductor industry chain and core components"


1. What are the semiconductor equipments
1. Single crystal furnace

The single crystal furnace is a device that uses a graphite heater to melt polycrystalline materials such as polycrystalline silicon in an inert gas (mainly nitrogen and helium) environment, and uses the Czochralski method to grow single crystal silicon without dislocation. In the actual production of single crystal silicon, it plays a key role in controlling the temperature and quality of silicon crystals.

Since the single crystal diameter can be affected by factors such as temperature, pulling speed and rotation speed, crucible tracking speed, and protective gas flow rate during the growth process, the production temperature mainly determines whether the crystal can form, and the speed will directly affect the intrinsic quality of the crystal. , but this impact can only be known through inspection after the single crystal is pulled out. The main control aspects of the single crystal furnace include crystal diameter, silicon power control, leakage rate and argon gas quality.

2. Vapor phase epitaxy furnace

The vapor phase epitaxy furnace mainly provides a specific process environment for the vapor phase epitaxy growth of silicon to achieve the growth of thin-layer crystals on single crystals that have a corresponding relationship with the crystal phase of the single crystal. Epitaxial growth refers to the growth of a single crystal layer with certain requirements and the same crystal orientation as the substrate on a single crystal substrate (substrate), as if the original crystal has extended outward for a period of time. In order to manufacture high-frequency and high-power devices , it is necessary to reduce the collector series resistance, and the material is required to withstand high voltage and large current, so it is necessary to grow a thin high-resistance epitaxial layer on a low-resistance substrate.

The vapor phase epitaxy furnace can make basic preparations for the functionalization of single crystal deposition. Vapor phase epitaxy is a special process of chemical vapor deposition. The crystal structure of the thin layer grown is a continuation of the single crystal substrate and is consistent with the crystal orientation of the substrate. Maintain a corresponding relationship.

3. Oxidation furnace

Silicon reacts chemically with gases containing oxidizing substances, such as water vapor and oxygen, at high temperatures to produce a dense silicon dioxide film on the surface of the silicon wafer. This is an important process in silicon planar technology. The main function of the oxidation furnace is to oxidize semiconductor materials such as silicon, provide the required oxidation atmosphere, and realize the oxidation process of the semiconductor as expected. It is an indispensable link in the semiconductor processing process.

4. Magnetron sputtering stage

Magnetron sputtering is a type of physical vapor deposition. General sputtering methods can be used to prepare materials such as semiconductors. It has the advantages of simple equipment, easy control, large coating area and strong adhesion. During the production process of silicon wafers, secondary electrons are bound to specific areas on the target surface through a closed magnetic field parallel to the target surface during diode sputtering and an orthogonal electromagnetic field formed on the target surface, achieving high ion density and high Energy ionization causes target atoms or molecules to be sputtered and deposited on the substrate at a high rate to form a thin film.

5. Chemical mechanical polishing machine

A machine for chemical mechanical polishing. In silicon wafer manufacturing, with the upgrade of process technology and the reduction of wire and gate sizes, photolithography technology has increasingly higher requirements for the flatness of the wafer surface. IBM In 1985, CMOS products were developed and introduced, and in 1990, they were successfully used in the production of 64MB DRAM. After 1995, CMP technology developed rapidly and was widely used in the semiconductor industry.

Chemical mechanical grinding is also called chemical mechanical polishing. Its principle is a processing technology that combines chemical corrosion and mechanical removal. It is currently the only technology in mechanical processing that can achieve global planarization of the surface. In actual manufacturing, its main function is to grind and polish the object to be ground (semiconductor) through the combined effects of mechanical grinding and chemical liquid dissolution and "corrosion".

6. Photolithography machine

Also known as mask alignment exposure machine, exposure system, lithography system, etc. The commonly used lithography machine is mask alignment lithography. The general lithography process requires silicon wafer surface cleaning and drying, primer coating, and spin coating. Reseal, soft bake, alignment exposure, post-bake, development, hard bake, etching and other processes. The process of spreading glue on the surface of the silicon wafer and then transferring the pattern on the mask to the photoresist to temporarily "copy" the device or circuit structure to the silicon wafer.

What are semiconductor equipment

2. Overview of the semiconductor industry chain and core components
From a material perspective, there are three main categories of materials related to the semiconductor industry: base materials, manufacturing materials, and packaging materials.

1. Silicon wafer

According to different chip materials, they are divided into silicon wafers (first-generation semiconductors) and compound semiconductors. Silicon wafers are the most widely used and are the most important raw materials in the integrated circuit IC manufacturing process. Silicon wafers are all made of monocrystalline silicon wafers. Silicon materials used in power electronics have higher purity requirements, usually requiring a purity of more than 11N.

2. Compound semiconductors

Compound semiconductors mainly refer to second- and third-generation semiconductors such as gallium arsenide, indium phosphide, gallium nitride, and silicon carbide. Compared with the first-generation elemental semiconductors (such as semiconductors formed by Si, Ge, etc.), compound semiconductors have higher It is much better in terms of frequency performance and high temperature performance. Generally speaking. The first generation: the application of silicon and germanium has promoted the rise of digital circuits and related industries. The current representative product is silicon; the second generation: the application of gallium arsenide and indium phosphide has promoted the development of a series of industries such as communications. ;3rd generation: The application of semiconductor materials such as gallium nitride and silicon carbide has directly promoted the development of a series of industries such as semiconductor lighting, display, and electric vehicles.

Core components:

According to the main materials and functions of semiconductor parts, they can be divided into twelve categories, including silicon/silicon carbide parts, quartz parts, ceramic parts, metal parts, graphite parts, plastic parts, vacuum parts, and sealing parts , filtering parts, moving parts, electronic control parts and other parts. Each major category of parts also includes a number of subdivided products. For example, vacuum parts include vacuum gauges (measuring process vacuum), vacuum pressure gauges, gas flow meters (MFC), vacuum valves, vacuum pumps and other key components. .